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Old News

I remember the classic black-and-white movies with the little paperboy shouting “EXTRA! EXTRA! READ ALL ABOUT IT!” I remember films and shows that spun attention-grabbing newspaper headlines towards the screen. I remember early college mornings spent with The New York Times, learning more intricacies of the New York Yankees than I ever cared to know.

But pretty soon, when it comes to newspapers, all I’ll have are memories. And I don’t know if that’s a bad thing; in some ways it’s fine. But it’s definitely sad, and newspapers’ new Internet versions create more complications than I initially realized.

Newspapers used to be the source for credible, deep reporting. I came to know the writers of The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (especially the sports section) by name, by style, subject and nuance. Part of me will miss the tangibility and familiarity of such newspapers. But most of me will embrace the saved space, speed, innumerable publisher options, and other technological advances of newspapers’ online counterparts.

Time.com recently published an article written by 247wallst.com, reporting on the unstable status of ten major American newspapers, and the likely foreclosures of most of those ten-within a year and a half. Already, multiple nationally-recognized newspapers have declared bankruptcy or relegated themselves to purely online distribution. The Rocky Mountain News in Denver closed, The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, which is owned by the Hearst Media Corporation, transferred exclusively to online publication after 146 years in print. Hearst also owns The San Francisco Chronicle, which will probably close if it cannot make sufficient cuts.

Along with those, 24/7 goes into details about The Philadelphia Daily News, The Minneapolis Star Tribune, The Miami Herald, The Detroit News, The Boston Globe, The Chicago Sun Times, The Fort Worth Star-Telegram, and The Cleveland Plain Dealer. The authors came to these ominous conclusions by analyzing “the basis of the financial strength of [the newspapers'] parent companies”.

But I wonder if the disappearance of newspapers truly a bad thing. Surely it’s somewhat depressing when I consider the common nostalgia felt by people long associated with the medium. My father was born in 1952, a time when everyone expected the same paperboy to chuck the morning paper into their driveways daily. My father says he misses those times (though he gets most news from the Internet).

I imagine many people who grew up without the Internet will share that feeling of loss. Newspapers have been staples of American journalism since close to the inception the country. According to historicpages.com, written by Phil Barber, the first newspaper appearance in the U.S. came in 1690 when Benjamin Harris published Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic in Boston.

But a long tradition has not slowed public’s gradual shift away from newspapers. “The decline in overall newspaper circulation began in 1989, and has continued at a relatively stable pace of just under 1% a year,” reports journalism.org.

A major reason for the decline is the Internet–that progressive technology that has wasted no time dismantling the markets, production, and influence of nearly all forms of popular media in the last twenty years. As it continues a steady march towards ubiquity, many of those media have realized the importance of using it (music, magazines, television, film, video games, even comic books-all have ventured into the online realm).

Once broadband speeds become worldwide commonalities, the vast selection and immediacy of downloadable music will be introduced to an even larger audience, even though it has already caused many people to abandon CDs entirely. Software downloads have left record companies in extremely precarious positions with their revenue descending annually for the last decade or so. According to the Recording Industry Association of America’s shipment and financial statistics, in 1997, the industry accumulated 13,711.2 million dollars in total shipments. In 2007, the number had fallen all the way to 7,985.8 million-about a 42% decrease.

I have contributed to that downfall. I continue to do so. I contributed to the massive piracy problem that was so pervasive in the early days of file-sharing software by downloading countless songs and albums without payment and without a second thought (though, like many, I have since realized the immorality of those actions and currently purchase digital music). But I continue to contribute to the decline by acquiring music online, which bypasses sources of income only existent in acquisitions from retail stores (e.g. packaging).

But I still miss some aspects of owning CDs. I miss the stylized lyric sheets; I miss album cover art like incubus’ picture of a sun rising on an empty sunlit beach; I miss seeing artistry like two hand-drawn, red-and-yellow coy fish on the disc; I miss feeling pride when I see a collection of albums along a shelf.

But I’m willing to abandon CDs for the portability, ease of use, and immediacy of digital formats, not to mention saved space. Clicking is faster; purchasing is faster; listening is faster…

Web programmers consistently improve the quality and availability of television online, which draws viewers away from the set and onto their laptops, costing networks valuable ratings and advertising dollars, especially in the coveted 18-34 demographic.

Even in 2003, comscore.com’s “comScore Media Metrix” (the site claims it is “the standard in Internet audience measurement”) found revelatory statistics concerning Internet usage in the 18-34 demographic. Peter Daboll, president of Media Metrix, says, “The fact that more than 75 percent of 18-34 year-old men in the U.S. are using the Internet seems to take at least some of the mystery out of the decline in TV viewing among this prized demographic.”

But I’m in the “prized demographic”, and I much prefer watching television on large screens while sitting on comfortable couches, with bags of popcorn that won’t dirty a keyboard. I strongly dislike enduring buffering, loading, fickle Internet connections, and other distractions that inherently lie within viewing programs online. I enjoy some conveniences of being online, but naturally, I dislike the inconveniences.

Same with newspapers. I like the conveniences the online medium features, I dislike the inherent disadvantages. For example, I’m a statistic within a recent Nielson Online report of the top 15 most popular newspaper websites of 2008. The New York Times emerged with the most “average monthly uniques” (the average number of different computer users who visit the site at least once within a given month) with 19,503,667. In January of 2005, BusinessWeek Magazine reported the Times’ subscription number was 1.1 million. 19 times (pardon the pun) more people in 2008 saw The New York Times in digital form than did 2005 subscribers to the hard copy.

But I was one of the estimated 1.1 million during 2005, when a college course required a subscription to the Times. And when I actually began reading, I realized I prefer the hard copy. I’m unplugged, untouchable. When connected to the Internet, I can check email, browse Facebook, talk to friends. When away from screens, I read. I just… read.

I belong to a generation that grew up in a childhood with newspapers, but also grew up with the Internet. I feel the loss, at least a portion of it-certainly not to the degree those people so accustomed to newspapers will experience when they read their final local edition.

But I will not feel entirely saddened by the departure of the classic medium, because the new medium provides enough benefits. I can see why the evolution to online publishing occurred. The huge disparity between the number of digital versus traditional readers confirms that online versions generate more readers than their older counterparts. So how can every publisher not try to expand into that realm?

In a comprehensive report earlier this year, with input from multiple outlets (e.g. Newspaper Association of America, Pew Center for People and Press), journalism.org reveals even deeper details about the decline of newspapers-and the rise of online versions.

One major statistic: “The print circulation slide from 2001 to 2008 totals roughly 13.5% [for daily editions] and 17.3% [for Sunday editions].” Further, “Several years ago, there was vague talk that… print circulation numbers might stabilize if not turn back up. That now appears less likely as the gradual shift of audience to the Internet continues [along with financial pressures]… So expect circulation totals to decline again in 2009 and 2010.”

A large impetus for the public’s transition to digital papers (yes, oxymoronic) involves, well, digital and paper. Specifically, consumers don’t want real paper because they have the digital kind. No black smudge on fingers. No giant stack of papers in the corner, on the coffee table, in the trash. No more fumbling with the damn thing because the gigantic width and height coupled with flimsy material creates an incredibly frustrating task in trying to turn a page.

With the Internet, to share an article with a friend, I merely copy and paste the Internet address in an email/Facebook update/Tweet/instant message, hit send, and the friend’s set. Old style? Grab some scissors, carefully cut straight lines around the article on A1 (ruining that section of the paper, including what’s on the back), then possibly flip forward a few pages to A5 and cut out the rest. Put it in your pocket after folding it or crumpling it.

If your friend had the Internet, (a major qualification discussed later) he could have discovered that information tens hours before you did. Take into consideration that The New York Times posts a new story at least once every 15 minutes. Old style? Once every 24 hours. If I rely solely on a newspaper for their information, I’m incredibly restricted by the release schedule.

Plus, online I can get the same kind of local journalist reactions, but from thousands of miles away; I do not have to reside within the mailing radius of Austin, Texas to read an Austin columnist. And because I don’t have to rely on my town’s local paper, I don’t have to read local voices at all.

If I’m tired of American media’s constant coverage of the perpetually declining economy, I visit the BBC.com for a British slant, or Azzaman.com for the Iraqi version of the news. No longer am I confined to local voices or local content. I can wake up and read about everything happening in Japan that day. Business men who constantly travel the globe now access information that affects their travel schedules, and therefore plan accordingly. Tourists check the weather of their destinations. Movie-goers can read millions of film reviews.

This ability to quickly locate information comes in handy most when searching for stories from years past. To find that type of content in newspapers, readers have two options. One: visit a library that houses one of those old reel-style devices that allows people to scan through past papers page-by-page (which still takes forever and requires knowledge of the story’s timetable), or two: manually inspect every paper from the last two years, which would be like trying to find a specific snowflake somewhere in Antarctica while wearing a blindfold.

Letters to the editor used to be the only way for readers to express their opinion on stories or columns. Most websites allow users to respond immediately by placing comments on the bottom of the page, which provide immediate feedback for publishers, which they can use to determine the popular types of stories, research which journalists spark the most controversy, or discover common reader sentiments. The ability to dispense immediate feedback easily satiates the desire to express personal opinions.

Even with all these benefits and shortcuts, proponents of the Internet such as myself cannot make the argument that computer screens are easier to read than paper. Repeatedly enduring long sessions in front of a computer can have major physical ramifications caused by constant poor posture and repetitive straining motions. In the Bureau of Labor and Statistics’ information page regarding Data Entry and Information Processing Workers, they relate the hazards of centered around computer usage. “[Workers] sit for long periods… are susceptible to repetitive strain injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome, neck and back injuries, and eyestrain.” Preventative measures must now be taken, so “many offices have adopted regularly scheduled breaks, ergonomically designed keyboards, and workstations that allow workers to stand or sit as they wish.”

I have a degenerative disc in my back that started when I was sixteen. I have tennis and golf elbow (neither caused by tennis or golf). I have chronic pain my right wrist when I use a mouse without a rest. All these injuries resulted from spending so much time (nearly eight hours a day for six years-not exaggerating) fixed in poor postures in front of computer without any notion of “correct” posture. I definitely can’t say I’ve induced chronic injuries by reading newspapers.

Laptops, however, alleviate some of the problems related to excessive computer usage, such as being confined to a desk, as does the growing popularity of mobile phones with Internet capabilities. The inherent portability of those two technologies allows access to more work-friendly and healthier environments, at least outside the office.

Still, when dealing with pixels, problems with the eyes still exist, even if said problems do not concern injuries. Hyperlinks on the Internet easily shift readers’ concentration. Links exist all over websites, and are often brightly colored to easily distinguish them and highlight their purpose-to take users to other sites and other stories and other experiences. So intentionally or not, links steal readers’ attention.

Wavering concentration is a smaller problem with newspapers. Most words relate to the story and won’t take readers to another paper if read. All the paper is white, all the words are black, all the lines are black, all the pictures are black and white (except for Sunday editions). They are (unintentionally) boring-at least aesthetically. No flash, no style, except for the distinct lack of style. Just black words on a white page.

But therein lies the charm of traditional newspapers, the comfort, the advantage. Concentration is not a problem. Eye strain is not a problem. Abstract fonts, hyperlinks, flashy banners, pop-up advertisements-all gone. Just the reader and the news. Sometimes that’s all that matters.

I could never read a novel online. By page 32, I’d go insane. The comfort on the eyes and brain that traditional papers provide cannot be matched by digital versions. On the Internet, I cannot scribble notes in the margins, circle words and then draw lines across the page to other words. I cannot write whatever I want, in whatever style I wish, in whatever location I wish. I can with newspapers. When reading for long periods of time, or reading a lengthy work, I prefer regular paper. I prefer a constant layout and design that allows me to focus on the content instead of the style of the content. Like I said earlier, when away from screens, I just read.

Yet, perhaps detractors of the net like myself (and yes, I realize I earlier claimed I am a proponent–conflict) can take solace in the fact that niche audience still exist for many products, and the same could happen for newspapers. After all, recreating that form’s sensation is not possible digitally-at least not yet. Plenty of people spent some time each morning with their papers and a cup of coffee. Now they must spend each morning with their computers and a cup of coffee. The sudden loss of a decades-long daily routine must be troubling and unsettling. I understand that when something plays a part of one’s entire life, and it suddenly disappears (or morphs into a new form), days will never feel quite the same. Because of that, some local papers will likely stay in business-ones that don’t require large quantities of subscribers and have a very specific audience.

Maybe in the future, gloves that recreate physical sensations, coupled with 3D holographic glasses, will grant the ability to read old newspapers with all the beneficial modern advancements. But until that time, traditional newspapers will continue morphing into new forms. Television has gone from eight channels to 800, from black-and-white to color, from standard definition to High. Books can be read digitally on portable devices that can store upwards of 150,000 of them. Countless magazines have finally resigned to the impending transition to digital by folding or shifting to online publishing, and newspapers have realized they too must reform to meet the demands of their readers (which now number in the hundreds of millions per year, come from all countries, have valuable unique perspectives, can give direct feedback on stories, and have the same capacity to spend money as in years past). Newspapers have little choice in the impending transition. Part of me is glad they don’t. But part of me wishes their future weren’t so bleak.

Astrology for Love, Luck, Money – Jupiter

Astrology for Success – Jupiter

The largest ‘planet’ in our Solar System – Jupiter has always been associated with good luck so let’s see where he can bring a little ‘luck’ into our lives. In the natural/flat chart ‘he’ ‘rules’ the sign Sagittarius and is the landlord/owner of the 9th house – the house of the Superconscious Mind. Wherever you have Jupiter in your Natal Chart you’re being asked to have a little faith, a little confidence and assurance. He ‘visits’ each house in turn every 12 years or so yet, in 2011 he’ll zap through Aries in under six months! What can you expect when he visits your house?

Transiting Jupiter into the 1st – Your health will improve, (if you’ve been feeling low, he’s coming out of your 12th!) Both physically and psychologically you should be feeling good, for this is the beginning of something new in your future. You’ll have success in dealing with people in authority. You could receive good news, or a gift from unexpected sources. You’re bound to feel more optimistic, and you’ll want to expand your life, whether through new ideas or new experiences. Look after your weight for Jupiter is known for increase or decrease! Having Jupiter transit your 1st keep in mind he’ll be here for about 12 months so plan for the future. To give you another example: Let’s suppose you had Neptune in the 1st well, your dreams, imagination and spiritual life are likely to expand in some way. If you were an artist or musician, this can be a very creative period. You may become involved in a church or religious group, undergo a religious conversion, or go on a long journey. You could be associated with a hospital or large institution of some kind. Keeping in mind, Jupiter expands/enlarges/increases whatever he conjuncts, all being well this should be a time for personal and spiritual growth.

Transiting Jupiter into the 2nd – This is a good time to enjoy music, romance remembering, Jupiter will remain in this house for up a year so don’t expect all of what you read to happen immediately. You can be lucky with money and many celebrations will come your way; make the most of the perfect times ahead, and enjoy the party atmosphere. You may even find yourself lucky in love, with the horses, or the stock exchange! You’ll have some happy times if you go with your instincts, rather than worry about what might happen. Things can turn out to be more expensive than you first thought so think carefully about the value of things – needs versus wants. Positively, you’ll feel very happy at this time, so take advantage of this where your good spirits can bring cheer to others for everybody needs a little cheering up…

Transiting Jupiter into the 3rd – A good time to increase your understanding of the ‘world’ around you for Jupiter increases your curiosity at this time, you can and should plan, organise create many different events for business and commercial activities are favoured – don’t be sloppy with details! You’ll have increased enthusiasm, a good time for travel, visiting foreign countries, or applying to a university. Writing, teaching, and making speeches are favoured, submit your manuscript to a publisher, or convey your point of view to others and success will be yours, publicise your product, or yourself. If you’re not practical your ideas will prove too big for the amount of finances, knowledge and other personal resources you have at your disposal – don’t promise what you cannot deliver. Buying and selling – seeking a bargain – selling off that which you no longer need – all are good during this transit, keeping in mind this lasts about a year…

Transiting Jupiter into the 4th – You’ll feel good, and in general, things should be going well for you at this time.

Your relationships with friends, especially female are kind and mutually supportive. This is a good time for dealing with the public and for changing your residence, or buying something for the home you’ve always wanted. It’s also a good time for business and financial dealings – don’t be overly sentimental if you want this success to last. On the flip side unpleasant visitors may appear, so try to be a little tactful in their presence, keep peace and harmony within the home environment. This is a favourable time to negotiate with superiors and civil authorities. You are persuasive, and should have it ‘all together.’ You may hear of a forthcoming happy event with your associations and friendships becoming more expansive, enriching your life in the process. You’ll feel concern, and want to care more for others, go for it…

Jupiter visiting your 5th – Confidence to do the things you want to do and saying no to the things you don’t! Try out what you wouldn’t ordinarily try to do, all of which is good. You’ll discover you have a lot of energy, use common sense in your undertakings however and don’t take on too big a load or too much responsibility, don’t overextend yourself. Be compassionate/ understanding of others and try to look at things from their points of view. This transit will take 12 months so relax and let Jupiter do his job, if your health has been a little low – it’ll improve, physically and psychologically. You’ll have success in dealing with those in authority and could receive good news or a gift; even a win of money for this is generally a good period! You’ll feel or should endeavour to be optimistic and you’ll want to expand your life, whether through new ideas or new experiences (even marriage or commitment with someone foreign!) for this transit usually means the beginning of something new in for your future.

Transiting Jupiter into the 6th – This transit tends to bring improved health where any health problems caused by extravagance and over-indulgence have knocked you for six! You’ll be helpful towards others, a dependable worker with a sense of loyalty, inspiring cooperation and goodwill amongst your fellow workers, enjoying your work and giving of your time willingly. Watch that you do not overwork or overindulge in eating or drinking. Expand your consciousness by going to new places, both in thought and in person. You can now plan and organise many different events with business and commercial activities being favoured, if involved with travel or any kind of mental work don’t be sloppy about details. Constructive intellect is the key phrase where you can make advantageous acquaintanceships conducting business negotiations that will be beneficial for a long time.

Jupiter visiting your 7th House: Benefits, opportunities and wealth come about as a result of friendships, marriage or partnerships in general. You’ll be seeking people who can expand your visions, offering you opportunities for expansion and helping you grow. If Jupiter is badly aspected in your natal chart, your partner may be somewhat opinionated, lazy, self- indulgent, extravagant and self-willed, sometimes untrustworthy, immoral, shameless and wasteful (you’ve been warned!)! This is a good time to enjoy music and romance and you might be lucky with money as well. Lucky in love, with the horses, stock exchange – luck is all around you and what is luck but being in the right place at the right time – accept ALL invitations -if you go with your instincts, rather than worry about what might happen, happy times and lasting success are yours to enjoy – have faith in this for what we fear we attract – what we dwell upon we create – be positive. Negatively: there could be legal conflicts giving you cause for concern, and causing you or your partner (business or marital) to behave in an incorrect manner!

Transiting Jupiter into the 8th – Your dreams, imagination and spiritual life are expanded – any projects you’ve been working towards will finally be realised. There’s a tremendous need (within) to achieve something that will make you a better person, or that will better your position. You can successfully conduct important business and legal affairs now – use this time to transform your life. Don’t exploit others financially; and keep away from crooked activities. Use this time to regenerate your life, not ruin it or bring about your own failure! Be patient in your dealings with authorities be willing to compromise; resist forcing your will onto others, and if you are being coerced, resist with all your strength. Now is the time to succeed for your efforts will be far-reaching, and geared to you becoming the best at whatever it is you want to do, don’t be lazy, and put in the effort. Your energy level is tremendous, so channel it constructively…

Jupiter visiting your 9th (“he’s coming home”) – Your life is expanded and enhanced in some way for it’s a time for new beginnings in your personal growth – Jupiter belongs here. Educational opportunities or travel will broaden your horizons increasing your contentment, success are yours almost for the asking so listen to your instincts, and think ‘timely’ in everything you do. Some form of recognition will be offered to you, and a lovely gift or golden opportunity will be the result. This is an excellent time to begin any new enterprise. On the flipside there may be problems with schools, religious differences or the law – taking too much for granted -problem with the authorities, and your credit rating might be questioned. Don’t invite trouble, by taking on too many projects or by getting involved in get-rich-quick schemes…

Transiting Jupiter into the 10th – The part of your life that represents your structure or personal achievement (career?) will be expanded in some way, where you’ll want to break free of restriction, or alternatively, choose to expand within the framework you have already built. It all depends on how happy you are with your present circumstances for this can be a time of important new beginnings (remembering that Jupiter stays about a year in each sign/house). During this period you may need help or advice from lawyers; or those in authority – (same sex parent) patience is rewarded for you will succeed in property deals, or through older peoples’ advice. On another level (the flip side) unpleasant changes abound, aggravated by indecisiveness and worry over little things, making everyone around you miserable and depressed. It’s important to be careful in making business and financial plans for the near future, keeping within your financial limits, even though you’ll resent having to do so! Be patient, and prepared to cut your losses if necessary, wherever they occur…

Jupiter visiting your 11th – You’re in for a big surprise that will change your life! Enjoy yourself in this period by avoiding any kind of hypocrisy. You may now buy or do something connected with computers! Whatever this is it will give you a lot of pleasure, and possibly financial gain later! Unexpected good fortune will bring money, exciting opportunities for study, travel and unusual friendships. Are you ready? You’ll want to be free and independent, without any responsibilities. If self-doubtful seek advice from those whom you respect for you know you need a change but don’t quite know what – be patient and the right opportunity will emerge (in an unusual/unexpected way). Wanting to break free from the mundane make sure you don’t throw the good away with the bad New friends and groups could enhance your life.

Transiting Jupiter into the 12th House: Your dreams, imagination and your spiritual life are expanded now – if you’re an artist, musician, writer, etc, this can be a very creative period. You may become involved in a church or religious group – undergo a religious conversion, or go on a long journey. You could be associated with a hospital or large institution of some kind! Don’t gamble or invest in anything risky at this time, and take extra care in choosing your business associates. You are idealistic now – try to ground this in the real world of reality. Avoid excessive drinking or drugs – spending time daydreaming about unrealistic things – are all possible making you susceptible to disappointment for you’re not able to distinguish clearly between what is realistic and feasible and what is false! If your resources are low, don’t take foolish risks – the only ones who will get rich are those who are taking you for a ride!

Next article: Astrology for beginners: Saturn

Breaking News – Use it to Boost Your Public Relations

It’s easy to think that public relations is just about making the most of the news you have or ‘creating’ news stories that will appeal to the press and media. If you can respond quickly and provide helpful comment then breaking news is a great opportunity to boost your profile. Here are some handy tips to get you thinking about making the most of breaking news.

Monitor the news – it’s essential to keep track of the press and media for the stories that are being covered. It’s unlikely that a week will go by without some sort of story appearing that you could contribute to. That means being on top of the news and stories as they appear and develop during the day. It’s not difficult to see the stories that are likely to get coverage over a couple of days.

Act quickly – the important thing is to spot a story and then act on it. The quicker you are in contacting the relevant journalist with useful comment or material then the more likely it will be that your efforts will pay off. The world of press and media moves quickly so you need to do the same. You’ll also need to consider the deadlines that journalists are working to. The 24 hour news channels mean that there is now much more scope for providing expert comment on the back of a news story. They have air time to fill and will be grateful if you can help them do that. Also, don’t forget that many of the stories that appear in the Sunday newspapers are the week’s stories in more detail with additional comment – that gives you a great opportunity.

Help to push on the story – ensure that what you contribute provides useful information, can look at the story from a different perspective, help to move the story on etc. The audience wants to be informed and your job is to help achieve that. It’s no good approaching a journalist about a business story saying that you are a business coach – you need to be very specific, in relation to the story, about what you can contribute.

Make yourself available – if you want to raise your profile on the back of someone else’s news then you need to put time aside to do that. It can be disruptive because it’s not planned. Before approaching any journalist be clear that you can contribute time to follow through. If you are successful in your efforts then that may include travelling to a studio, doing interviews etc and that all takes time and effort. In advance of an interview you may also want to seek the services of a media trainer to help you prepare. This is a good idea particularly if you haven’t done much press and media work.

Build relationships – approaching journalists on the back of breaking news also provides you with a great opportunity to build relationships with journalists covering your interest area. Find out the type of stories they are interested in and whether you can help them on other stories. Also, if you do a good job then it gives you scope for getting them to put you in their ‘little black book’ of contacts for future stories – that’s what you really need to achieve.

Become an expert – there are two ways to generate opportunities for comment and interview on the back of news stories. One way is to contact journalists. The other is for them to contact you. In an ideal world you should probably do both. There are databases such as Expert Sources where you can list your details for a paid-for subscription. Journalists use it to find experts to provide comment for the stories they are working on.

Commenting on the back of other people’s news is a great way to build your profile and get exposure to key audiences. It is also an important way to build you profile while keeping your costs down. If you can build a reputation for providing useful and insightful comment then you will quickly find that journalists will come back to you time and again.